which of the following statements about closing entries is true

revenue account
account in accounting

Sophisticated businesses may setup automatic reordering so they never run out of stock. Periodic inventory is an accounting stock valuation practice that’s performed at specified intervals. Businesses physically count their products at the end of the period and use the information to balance their general ledger. Companies then apply the balance to the beginning of the new period. Calculate the balance of the income summary account and transfer it to the capital. Income Summary A/c – CreditHere, the income summary might represent the net profit or loss that impacts the capital.

There is no single standard timeframe for temporary accounts, but many companies choose to zero them out on a quarterly basis. Under a periodic review inventory system, the accounting practices are different than with a perpetual review system. To calculate the amount at the end of the year for periodic inventory, the company performs a physical count of stock. Organizations use estimates for mid-year markers, such as monthly and quarterly reports.

However, the https://1investing.in/ amount recorded is the sales price, which should be greater than the cost of $10. The difference between the sales price and the cost of goods sold is called gross margin. Gross margin is often used to assess the profitability of merchandising and manufacturing companies. Temporary accounts are the accounts that remain bound to a particular fiscal period and whose balance is not carried forward at the end of an accounting period. Instead, a closing entry is included at the end of that period so the balance returns to zero. Any leftover funds in these accounts are then moved to a permanent account and the accountants create the necessary financial documentation needed to demonstrate this entire occurrence.

Recording inventory

Periodic inventory taking is the physical count of inventory that takes place on a periodic schedule when using a periodic inventory method. Even businesses using perpetual inventory may want to take a physical inventory count periodically to account for shrinkage . Periodic system examples include accounting for beginning inventory and all purchases made during the period as credits. Companies do not record their unique sales during the period to debit but rather perform a physical count at the end and from this reconcile their accounts. One other key difference between the two systems is the accounts you use.

The balances in temporary accounts are used to create the income statement. By understanding which accounts are permanent and temporary, businesses can develop strategies to maximize their cash flows. It is essential for small businesses, which may need access to large amounts of capital when making large purchases or investments.

Temporary account example

In a payroll accountingic system, you update this total at the end of the accounting period during the monthly inventory count. If a company’s revenues are greater than its expenses, the closing entry entails debiting income summary and crediting retained earnings. In the event of a loss for the period, the income summary account needs to be credited and retained earnings reduced through a debit. It involves shifting data from temporary accounts on the income statement to permanent accounts on the balance sheet.

They usually earn interest over time, allowing you to grow your savings. Or schedule a live demo of the Invoiced Accounts Receivable Cloud to see what an automated cloud-native accounting platform can do for your business. Allowance for Doubtful Accounts is a ____ (temporary/permanent) account. While this account isn’t completely necessary, it can help you keep a record of what money got transferred in case you undergo an audit. While this might sound like a small difference, it changes how you interpret the balance for each account type. So, your real accounts reflect that by carrying over the value.

accounting equation

This allows managers to make decisions as it relates to inventory purchases, stocking, and sales. The information can be more robust, with exact purchase costs, sales prices, and dates known. Although a periodic physical count of inventory is still required, a perpetual inventory system may reduce the number of times physical counts are needed. When goods are sold under the periodic inventory system, there is no entry to credit the Inventory account or to debit the account Cost of Goods Sold. Hence, the Inventory account contains only the ending balance from the previous year.

2 Perpetual v. Periodic Inventory Systems

For this reason, these types of accounts are called temporary or nominal accounts. When an accountant closes an account, the account balance returns to zero. Starting with zero balances in the temporary accounts each year makes it easier to track revenues, expenses, and withdrawals and to compare them from one year to the next. There are four closing entries, which transfer all temporary account balances to the owner’s capital account.


Business owners should make a decision based on what they need to measure and for what time period. It is possible for accounts that were once treated as permanent to become temporary due to selling the business or reorganizing the accounts. So, at the end of a fiscal period, accountants note the closing balance, but they don’t close out the account by zeroing it out. Consequently, when the next fiscal period begins, the account continues with the closing balance it had from the previous fiscal period. Temporary accounts include all revenue accounts, expense accounts, and in the case of sole proprietorships and partnerships, drawing or withdrawal accounts. Knowing which accounts are permanent or temporary gives businesses a better sense of what they can expect in the future.

Credit Card Accounts — Temporary Accounts

This method also makes the calculations less time-consuming. In the periodic system, you only perform the COGS during the accounting period. Balance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders’ equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time.

The revenue, or sales, account accumulates sales made to customers throughout the accounting period. Unlike the cost of goods sold account, transactions in the revenue account take place at selling price. For example, when you record a sale of one shirt that cost $10 when you purchased the shirt from the supplier, the cost of goods sold is $10.

Temporary accounts are interim accounts that track a company’s financial activity during a specified time period. These accounts are short-term and typically close at the end of every accounting period. In general, there are three types of temporary accounts that come in the closing entries. For example, ABC company was able to make $500,000 sales in 2020. If the sales account was not closed, it will be carried over to the next accounting period.

  • As with all temporary accounts, at the end of each period you reset the cost of goods sold account to zero.
  • Temporary accounts requiring closure are Sales, Sales Discounts, Sales Returns and Allowances, and Cost of Goods Sold.
  • When goods are sold under the periodic inventory system, there is no entry to credit the Inventory account or to debit the account Cost of Goods Sold.
  • When preparing these statements, you must ensure that all Reports are accurate and up-to-date.
  • While this account isn’t completely necessary, it can help you keep a record of what money got transferred in case you undergo an audit.

The specific types of expenses accounts include cost of sales account, salaries expense account, buying account, and more. Types of temporary accounts may include revenue accounts, expenses accounts, and income summaries. To avoid mixing up this data and for an accurate picture of transactions taking place during a fixed time period, temporary accounts can be quite helpful. They can create concrete boundaries to separate economic activity for better tracking and more efficient financial management. To close a temporary account first transfer all of its balance to the income summary account in closing entries.

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Indefinite-life intangible assets are not amortized; instead, they are evaluated periodically for impairment. Indefinite-life intangible assets are depreciated by using straight-line or double declining balance methods. A company is able to _____________ the cost of acquiring a resource if the resource will provide the company with a tangible benefit for more than one fiscal year. Companies _________ costs that provide only one fiscal year’s worth of benefits. Both manufacturing and merchandising firms purchase raw materials, but manufacturing firms sell to other businesses, while merchandising firms sell to individual customers. They report the ending inventory for each purchase date first, then add them up.


While both the periodic and perpetual inventory systems require a physical count of inventory, periodic inventorying requires more physical counts to be conducted. This updates the inventory account more frequently to record exact costs. Knowing the exact costs earlier in an accounting cycle can help a company stay on budget and control costs. At the end of an accounting period, entries from all revenue and expense accounts are transferred into the income summary account.

Between the two accounting systems, there are differences in how you update the accounts and which accounts you need. In a perpetual system, the software is continuously updating the general ledger when there are changes to the inventory. In the periodic system, the software only updates the general ledger when you enter data after taking a physical count. In a perpetual system, the COGS account is current after each sale, even between the traditional accounting periods.